What Is Schedule D Tax Assessment?

If you are a sole trader in the UK, seeking to understand how the Schedule D tax assessment works, you will find guidance in the following blog post. In addition to explaining the Schedule D tax assessment system, we will discuss whether it still applies to sole traders in the UK or not and what are the possible alternatives for sole traders to file their tax returns under the self-assessment method.

What Is Schedule D Tax Assessment?

A Schedule D tax assessment is a specific tax which was levied on self-employed sole traders in the United Kingdom. This tax assessment proved a way for the government to collect taxes from individuals based on their income, profits, and gains made from investments or other sources. As the name implies, the Schedule D tax assessment falls under the category of the tax code known as Schedule D.

The term “Schedule D” has been used to explain the tax deduction process for sole traders under the self-assessment system. It involved a process used to assess an individual’s income, or profits from their employment or self-employment. The income could include earnings from wages, salaries, investments or property. 

Under this system, individuals were required to submit a capital gains tax return under this assessment, which is a form detailing all of their taxable income and gains made in the previous tax year. This form was then submitted to HMRC for their assessment. Once the assessment was completed, individuals would know how much tax they have to pay for the relevant tax year.

Schedule D Tax Assessment for sole traders was further broken down into the following classification:

  • Schedule D Case I and II include Profits from trades or professions
  • Schedule D Case III includes Interest Received
  • Schedule D Case IV includes Interest on foreign securities
  • Schedule D Case V includes Income from foreign possessions
  • Schedule D Case VI includes miscellaneous incomes such as ad-hoc commissions

The amount of tax due under the Schedule D tax assessment scheme varied depending on individual circumstances. However, the Schedule D tax assessment does not apply to the UK tax system anymore. It has now been replaced with the calculation SA302 once a sole trader files their tax returns under the self-assessment system. 

How Much Tax Did You Have To Pay Under A Schedule D Tax Assessment?

Under the Schedule D tax assessment, individuals in the UK have had to pay taxes on their income from certain sources. These include income from investments, rental properties, and self-employment. Depending on your income level and type of income, you may be liable for either capital gains tax (CGT) or income tax.

Whether they were employed or a sole trader, the amount of tax they paid depended on the total income they received over the year, including their taxable income and any capital gains. 

HMRC (Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs) provided sole traders with a Self Assessment Tax Return which had to be filled in and submitted by the end of January each year. This enabled HMRC to calculate how much tax was owed and how much one could expect to be refunded (if 


The amount of capital gains tax payable depended on the total value of one’s assets, whether you have made any disposals in the current tax year, and whether your capital gains exceed the annual CGT exemption threshold. If your total capital gains exceeded the exemption threshold for the year, then the additional gains had to be declared on your Self Assessment Tax Return.

Does Schedule D Tax Assessment Still Apply To Sole Traders?

No, the Schedule D Tax Assessment does not apply to sole traders anymore. Since the abolishment of the Schedule D Tax Assessment, sole traders file their tax returns using the self-assessment tax system in the UK. For this, they must first register themselves as being self-employed as a sole trader with the HMRC. 

They can then access an online account to file their tax returns each year. If you are a sole trader and need to file your tax returns under this system, you will need to use your Government Gateway login credentials.

If you are self-employed as a sole trader with an annual income exceeding £1,000, you will need to file a self-assessment tax return. This includes incomes from the following sources:

  • rental income from a property 
  • tips and commission from product sales or provision of services
  • investments, savings and dividends
  • foreign income

How Can A Sole Trader File A Self Assessment Tax Return?

If you are a sole trader who needs to file a self-assessment tax return, you should follow the below-listed steps:

  • register yourself for self-assessment
  • file your tax returns
  • pay your taxes

You can register yourself for self-assessment by October 5th the second year of your business as a self-employed sole trader.

Once you register yourself, you will be issued a Government Gateway ID which you can use to set up your personal tax account. Once you are issued these details you can either file your self-assessment tax online or by using a paper form.

If you choose to file your tax return online, you can simply fill in the details that apply to you when you access your personal tax account. If you are filing your tax returns on paper, you will need to fill in form SA100 And form SA103S.

Once your tax returns are filed and submitted, the HMRC will send you a confirmation message and a reference number. As soon as the HMRC calculates the amount of tax you owe, as well as the National Insurance contributions you need to pay.

If you are filing your tax returns online, the deadline for filing them is January 31st; however, if you are filing them on paper, you should complete your filing by October 31st.


The above discussion explains how the Schedule D tax assessment worked for sole traders who had to file their tax returns. It has also indicated that the Schedule D tax assessment system does not apply to sole traders anymore and has been replaced by the self-assessment method which allows sole traders to file their tax returns; both online and in paper form.


Schedule D? | Bectu Freelance Research

UK Taxation

Self Assessment tax returns: Registering and sending a return – GOV.UK